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[1] Interview of J. Plumer Leiphart, former Head of Satellite Communications Branch of the Naval Research Laboratory, by R.L. Hess, 26-27 Dec 1994

[2] Edelson, Burton I and John J. Dougherty, "Navy Satellite Communications," U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 88, no.7 (July 1962): 66-75.

[3] Stares, Paul B. The Militarization of Space, U.S. Policy, 1945-1984, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1985.

[4] Durch, William J. National Interests and the Military Use of Space. Cambridge, MA: Ballenger Publishing Co., 1984.

[5] Klingaman, William K. APL-Fifty Years of Service to the Nation, A History of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Laurel, MD: The Laboratory, 1993.

[6] The Space Program at the Applied Physics Laboratory, The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, 1982

[7] Transcript of an interview with Reid Dennis Mayo, June 4, 9, and 24, 1981, conducted by D.K. Allison, Historian, Naval Research Laboratory, 279 pages

[8] Howard Lorenzen, "Early History of the [NRL] Space Systems and Technology Division, " transcript of an interview, 15 pages, 26 Oct 1968

[9] Gebhard, Louise A. Evolution of Naval Radio-Electronics and Contributions of the Naval Research Laboratory. Report 8300. Washington, DC: Naval Research Laboratory, 1979.

[10] Interview of VADM G. Nagler, USN (Retired), by R.L. Hess, Aug 1994

[11] CDR B.J. Edelson, USN, Communications Satellites: The Experimental Years in Acta Astronautics, 1984, pages 407-413

[12] I. Getting, Ivan A. All in a Lifetime: Science in the Defense of Democracy. New York: Vantage Press, 1989.

[13] Interview of ADM William Moran, USN (Retired), former Director of Navy Space Programs, by R.L. Hess, 2-3 Oct 1996

[14] Interview of Lieutenant General F. McCartney, USAF (Retired), by R.L. Hess, at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL 29 Jun 1995

[15] Interview of R. Conley, by R.L. Hess, 23 Dec 1994

[16] Interview of R. Dyson, Technical Directory, Systems Architecture, Naval Space and Electronics Systems Command, by R.L. Hess, 27 Dec 1994

[17] J.A. Sartorius, "Changing Soviet Views on Space and ASAT Weapons: Implications for Naval Warfare," Center for Naval Analyses Research Memorandum, CRM 88-43, Mar 1988

A.1  A.E. Fuhs, Analyst's Guide to Military Space, U.S. Navy Postgraduate School, 19__

1. Alphabetically listed references contain information important to the compiling of this document, but were not specifically called-out in the text.

B. Memorandum from Secretary of the Navy John Chafee to Dep Sec Def, 11 Jun 1970

C. R.R. Newton, The Space Program at the Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel MD, 1985

D. Edelson, Burton I. "Ships and Satellites," U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 89, no.6 (June 1963): 48-55.

E. D.A. Day, The Evolution of the Institutional Structure of the United States Military Space Program (the History of the National Reconnaissance Office), published by the 45th Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, 9-14 Oct 1994, Jerusalem, Israel

F. Chief of Naval Operations memorandum for the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Coordination of Satellite and Space Vehicle Operations, 22 Apr 1959

G. Pete Wilhelm and L.M. Hammarstrom, slide briefing Jul 1985

H. G.A. Federici and D.H. Blake, Survivability of the U.S. Satellites: Executive Report, Center for Naval Analyses Report, CNR 171, Oct 1989

I. Space Panel of the Naval Studies Board, Appendix: History of the Navy Achievements in Space 199_

J. Interview of Dr. Robert LeFande, Naval Research Laboratory, by R.L. Hess and J.P. Leiphart, 27 Dec 1994

K. D. Bradburn, et al, The SIGINT Reconnaissance Satellites: History, Development, and Deployment 1945 to 1975, working papers

L. Memorandum from RADM T.F. Connelly to Secretary of the Navy, J.B. Connally, Jr., 11 Apr 1961 M. L.J. Abella and M.B. Hollinger, U.S. Navy in Space: Past, Present, and Future, article in IEEE Transactions on Airspace and Electronic Systems, 3 Jun 1984

N. Final Report of the 1992 Blue Ribbon Review of the Future of the Air Force in Space, 23 Nov 1992

O. Chairman of the JCS Report on the Roles Missions, and Functions of the Armed Forces of the United States, Feb 1992

P. Senator Sam Nunn, speech to Congress, 1 Jul 1992

Q. G.A. Federici, Space in the U.S. Naval Warfare: Lessons Learned from Wargames, Center for Naval Analyses CRM 87-45, April 1987

List of Figures

Figure 1  The world's largest parabolic antenna (1951)

Figure 2  Communications Moon Relay, the world's first operational satellite communication system (1959)   

Figure 3  A successful Vanguard launch

Figure 4  Director of the Vanguard launch 

Figure 5  Photograph transmitted by Moon Relay from Hawaii to Washington DC

Figure 6  NRL's satellite-research facility at Stump Neck, Maryland, the largest fully Steerable parabolic antenna in the U.S. in 1956 

Figure 7 Postage Stamp commemorating first "space mail" in Nov 1960 

Figure 8 Echo II the 135-foot digitized satellite sphere 

Figure 9 The first satellite tracking system MINITRACK (1956) 

Figure 10 U.S. Space Surveillance System (SPASUR) 

Figure 11 U.S. Naval Surveillance System (WS-434) Kickapoo Lake, TX Transmitter 

Figure 12 USNS Kingsport configured to demonstrate communications 

Figure 13 Satellite-communications SHF terminal, model AN/SSC-3 

Figure 14 LOFTI-I satellite launched in 1961 atop Transit 3B satellite

Figure 15 SOLRAD-10 satellite 

Figure 16 USNS Range Tracker (AGM-1) 

Figure 17 The Transit system in place in 1981 

Figure 18 The Timation satellite 

Figure 19 MILSATCOM Satellite 

Figure 20          

Figure 21          

Figure 22          

Figure 23          

Figure 24          


List of Tables

Table 1  Experimental and pre-production Transit satellites 

Table 2  Eight ground sites selected by the joint committee 

Table 3  Locations of the seventeen Tranet stations 

Table 4   U.S. Space Surveillance System

Table 5   Lincoln Laboratory experimental satellites 

Table 6   The NRL classified satellite program, 1960s 

Table 7   APL environmental-research satellites during the 1960s 

Table 8  

Table 9   Tranet improvement program (TIP) satellites 

Table 10

Table 11

Table 12

Table 13

Table 14

Table 15

Table 16

22 July 2003